0
Shop By Vehicle
Top Categories
All Categories

Top Categories

All Categories


Hi, ! (Not you?)
My Account
Track Order
Help
Contact Us
MSD Ignition 8611
Representative Image
Product images may differ from actual product appearance.

MSD Ignition Flying Magnet Crank Trigger Replacement Wheel Small Block Chevy

121-8611

made in usa
Free Shipping Ships

$171.95
MSD Ignition Flying Magnet Crank Trigger Replacement Wheel Small Block Chevy $171.95
QTY
Flying Magnet Crank Trigger Replacement Wheel
  • Small Block Chevy
  • 7" Balancer
  • MSD Ignition 8611 Details

    Small Block Chevy

    Replacement crank trigger wheel for MSD Flying Magnet Crank Trigger Kit 121-8610

    Note: Not legal for sale or use on pollution-controlled vehicles.

    Fits Applications Revision:
  • Chevrolet G30 Base 1996

  • Specifications:

    Material
    Aluminum
    Hardware Included
    No
    Crankshaft Wheel Finish
    Red anodized
    Quantity
    Sold individually
    Manufacturer's Part Number:
    8611

    Flying Magnet Crank Trigger

    Stable ignition timing is a necessity in performance engines. In most cases, a distributor will do just fine, but when you start making big-time horsepower with extreme cylinder pressures, the timing is critical to both the performance and the life of the engine. The ignition must be triggered at a precise time in relation to the position of the piston the compression stroke. Think of all the mechanical stretching and flexing that takes place through the timing chain, gears and cam before the distributor pickup triggers the ignition. The crankshaft on the other hand, knows exactly where each piston is, plus it is the most stable component of the engine in relation to piston position. That's why a crank trigger for timing is so important in high horsepower engine applications.

    Most crank triggers use steel studs that stick out of the wheel to trigger a magnetic pickup. However, the stationary magnet can be triggered by track debris, vibration or even bolts. MSD uses a non-magnetic pickup which gets triggered by powerful magnets that are embedded in the trigger wheel. This ''flying magnet'' design cannot be false triggered. The only way to trigger the ignition is when a magnet passes the pickup.

    This non-magnet pickup is securely held in position by CNC machined aluminum brackets. These brackets feature a long adjustment slot providing a large range of accurate timing adjustments. Plus, many of the brackets can be used on either side of the balancer for easy installation. Most kits are supplied with several spacers for different accessories and pulley systems.

    MSD PREVENTS FALSE TRIGGERING

    The crank trigger timing wheel is also machined out of 6061-T6 aluminum and anodized MSD Red. Each ''rare earth'' magnet is pressed and then riveted into the wheel to handle the fierce rpm and vibration that high horsepower engines put out. By installing the magnets in the trigger wheel, MSD has done away with the chance of false triggering. As the engine is rotating, the magnets pass the Non-Magnetic Pickup and create a signal that triggers the Ignition. The magnets are the only thing that can trigger the ignition making it the most reliable and accurate way to trigger your ignition.

    All MSD Flying Magnet Crank Trigger Kits must be used with an MSD Ignition Control. Kits include mounting brackets, trigger wheel, non-magnetic pickup, centering ring and mounting hardware.

    NOTE: A locked-out distributor must be used with a crank trigger system.

    JEGS Easy Kits are designed by JEGS high performance racing professionals to help you get all the performance parts you need for your race car, hot rod or truck.

    Does MSD Ignition 8611 fit your vehicle?

    Narrow Results
    Filter By Year
    Filter By Make
    Filter By Model
    Filter By SubModel
    Filter By EngineType
    Filter By CC
    Filter By Liter
    Filter By Aspiration

    1965-1966 CHEVROLET CHEVY II

    • Liter: 5.4
    • SubModel: NOVA SS
    • CUI: 327
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.4 L / 327 )

    1980-1981 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1977 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: BASE
    • Engine Vin: L
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1970-1973 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1982 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1990-1995 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CHEVY VAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1986-1987 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: BONAVENTURE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1996 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: BASE
    • Engine Vin: 5
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1979-1980 CHEVROLET K20 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1981-1986 CHEVROLET BLAZER K5

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1972 CHEVROLET KINGSWOOD

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: ESTATE
    • Engine Vin: K
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1977-1979 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CHEVY VAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1986-1987 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BONAVENTURE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1996 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: COLLECTOR'S EDITION

    1985-1986 CHEVROLET K20 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1980-1986 CHEVROLET BLAZER K5

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1987-1988 CHEVROLET V10 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1972 CHEVROLET KINGSWOOD

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: ESTATE
    • Engine Vin: L
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1981-1989 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CHEVY VAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1994-1995 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SPORTVAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1996 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: GRAND SPORT

    1979 CHEVROLET K20 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 6.6
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 400
    • EngineType: V8 ( 6.6 L / 400 )

    1975-1979 CHEVROLET G30 VAN

    • Liter: 6.6
    • SubModel: CHEVY VAN
    • CUI: 400
    • EngineType: V8 ( 6.6 L / 400 )

    1994-1995 CHEVROLET C2500 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: WT
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1969-1971 CHEVROLET BROOKWOOD

    • CC: 5736
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1970-1971 CHEVROLET EL CAMINO

    • CC: 5736
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1989-1991 CHEVROLET V1500 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SCOTTSDALE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1977-1980 CHEVROLET MALIBU

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1978-1980 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1972 CHEVROLET KINGSWOOD

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: BASE
    • Engine Vin: L
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1975-1980 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CHEVY VAN
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1961-1966 CHEVROLET SUBURBAN

    • CC: 4638
    • Liter: 4.6
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 283
    • EngineType: V8 ( 4.6 L / 283 )

    1981-1993 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SPORTVAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1995 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: INDIANAPOLIS 500 PACE CAR

    1988-1991 CHEVROLET K2500 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CHEYENNE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1980 CHEVROLET G30 VAN

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: HI-CUBE

    1985 CHEVROLET G30 VAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: HI-CUBE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1992-1995 CHEVROLET C2500 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1988-1995 CHEVROLET C1500 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1973 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • CC: 5736
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1972 CHEVROLET EL CAMINO

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1982-1986 CHEVROLET C10 SUBURBAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1988 CHEVROLET R30 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1974 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1972 CHEVROLET BROOKWOOD

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1989-1991 CHEVROLET V1500 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1985 CHEVROLET K20 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SCOTTSDALE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1994-1995 CHEVROLET C3500 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1975 CHEVROLET LAGUNA

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: S3
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1976 CHEVROLET K5 BLAZER

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1976 CHEVROLET MALIBU

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1970-1971 CHEVROLET MONTE CARLO

    • CC: 5736
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1980-1981 CHEVROLET CAPRICE

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CLASSIC LANDAU
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1982-1986 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SCOTTSDALE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1975 CHEVROLET LAGUNA

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1980 CHEVROLET G10 VAN

    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SPORTVAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1995 CHEVROLET TAHOE

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1972 CHEVROLET G20 VAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1976-1977 CHEVROLET C20 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 6.6
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 400
    • EngineType: V8 ( 6.6 L / 400 )

    1967 CHEVROLET C10 SUBURBAN

    • CC: 4638
    • Liter: 4.6
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 283
    • EngineType: V8 ( 4.6 L / 283 )

    1980 CHEVROLET K20 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 6.6
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • Engine Vin: R
    • CUI: 400
    • EngineType: V8 ( 6.6 L / 400 )

    1998 CHEVROLET CORVETTE

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: INDIANAPOLIS 500 PACE CAR

    1985 CHEVROLET G30 VAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CHEVY VAN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1992-1993 CHEVROLET K2500 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CHEYENNE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1990-1995 CHEVROLET K1500 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: WT
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1975-1978 CHEVROLET G30 VAN

    • Liter: 6.6
    • SubModel: SPORTVAN
    • CUI: 400
    • EngineType: V8 ( 6.6 L / 400 )

    1981-1994 CHEVROLET G30 VAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: HI-CUBE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1968 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • CC: 5358
    • Liter: 5.3
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 327
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.3 L / 327 )

    1968 CHEVROLET C30 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 307
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 307 )

    1968 CHEVROLET C20 PICKUP

    • CC: 5358
    • Liter: 5.3
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 327
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.3 L / 327 )

    1969-1971 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • CC: 5736
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1979-1986 CHEVROLET C30 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SCOTTSDALE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1981-1986 CHEVROLET EL CAMINO

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CONQUISTA
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1975 CHEVROLET NOVA

    • Liter: 4.3
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 262
    • EngineType: V8 ( 4.3 L / 262 )

    1975-1977 CHEVROLET C10 SUBURBAN

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1987 CHEVROLET BLAZER

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1972 CHEVROLET TOWNSMAN

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: BASE
    • Engine Vin: K
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1980 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: BIG TEN
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1982-1986 CHEVROLET C10 SUBURBAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CUSTOM
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1972 CHEVROLET BROOKWOOD

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: BASE
    • Engine Vin: K
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1976-1980 CHEVROLET C10 PICKUP

    • Liter: 6.6
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 400
    • EngineType: V8 ( 6.6 L / 400 )

    1981 CHEVROLET BLAZER K5

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: DELUXE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1976-1980 CHEVROLET CAMARO

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: RALLY SPORT
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1979-1981 CHEVROLET EL CAMINO

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: ROYAL KNIGHT
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1978-1979 CHEVROLET C30 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CHEYENNE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1981 CHEVROLET K10 SUBURBAN

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: CUSTOM

    1971 CHEVROLET EL CAMINO

    • CC: 5736
    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: SS
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1987 CHEVROLET V20 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1977-1978 CHEVROLET K20 PICKUP

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SILVERADO
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1976 CHEVROLET CAMARO

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1964-1967 CHEVROLET MALIBU

    • CC: 4638
    • Liter: 4.6
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 283
    • EngineType: V8 ( 4.6 L / 283 )

    1963-1967 CHEVROLET CHEVY II

    • CC: 4638
    • Liter: 4.6
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 283
    • EngineType: V8 ( 4.6 L / 283 )

    1978-1981 CHEVROLET MONTE CARLO

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: LANDAU
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1984-1986 CHEVROLET C10 SUBURBAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: SCOTTSDALE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1977-1978 CHEVROLET K5 BLAZER

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1970-1971 CHEVROLET CAMARO

    • EngineType: ALL
    • SubModel: Z28

    1972 CHEVROLET CAPRICE

    • CC: 5737
    • Liter: 5.7
    • Aspiration: N
    • SubModel: BASE
    • Engine Vin: J
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1981 CHEVROLET MALIBU

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: BASE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    1975-1981 CHEVROLET K10 PICKUP

    • Liter: 5.7
    • SubModel: CHEYENNE
    • CUI: 350
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.7 L / 350 )

    1987 CHEVROLET R10 SUBURBAN

    • CC: 5031
    • Liter: 5.0
    • SubModel: CUSTOM DELUXE
    • CUI: 305
    • EngineType: V8 ( 5.0 L / 305 )

    Items You Need

    Some parts are not legal for use in California or other states with similar laws / regulations

    Motor Vehicles

    WARNING: Motor vehicles contain fuel, oils and fluids, battery posts, terminals and related accessories which contain lead and lead compounds and other chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects and other reproductive harm. These chemicals are found in vehicles, vehicle parts and accessories, both new and as replacements. When being serviced, these vehicles generate used oil, waste fluids, grease, fumes and particulates, all known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and reproductive harm.

    Tools:

    WARNING: Some dust created by power sanding, sawing, grinding, drilling, and other construction activities contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Some examples of these chemicals are: lead from lead-based paints, crystalline silica from bricks and cement and other masonry products, and arsenic and chromium from chemically treated lumber. Your risk from exposure to these chemicals varies, depending on how often you do this type of work. To reduce your exposure, work in a well-ventilated area and with approved safety equipment, such as dust masks that are specially designed to filter out microscopic particles.

    Electrical Cords

    WARNING: The wires of these products contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.